As age increases, the functions of tissues and organs in the body gradually decline. Due to this decline in organ function, drug absorption, distribution, metabolism and excretion (ADME processes) in elderly people are worse than those of young people.
How does age factor affect drug metabolism?
Thus, age-related changes in drug metabolism should be considered a typical phenotypic characteristic of the aging process. Generally, older age is associated with increased blood concentrations of drugs and altered metabolism, reduced effectiveness, and increased risk of adverse reactions for many medications (2).
How is drug metabolism different in the elderly?
Overall hepatic metabolism of many drugs through the cytochrome P-450 enzyme system decreases with age. For drugs with decreased hepatic metabolism (see table Effect of Aging on Metabolism and Elimination of Some Drugs), clearance typically decreases 30 to 40%.
What factors can affect drug metabolism?
Many factors affect the rate and pathway of metabolism of drugs, and the major influences can be sub-divided into internal (physiological and pathological) and external (exogenous) factors as indicated below: Internal: species, genetic (strain), sex, age, hormones, pregnancy, disease. External: diet, environment.
How does age affect a person’s response to drugs?
As we age, changes in our body can affect the way medications are absorbed and utilized. We become more sensitive to medications, and we are more likely to experience increased side effects, drug interactions, and other adverse drug reactions.
What is metabolism and what factors affect it?
Metabolism refers to the countless chemical processes going on continuously inside the body that allow life and normal functioning. … Your metabolic rate is influenced by many factors – including age, gender, muscle-to-fat ratio, amount of physical activity and hormone function.
Is age a factor in drug selection?
In general drug absorption, distribution in the body, activity, metabolism and excretion can all change as a result of ageing. The older person is more likely to experience side effects as well as experiencing difficulty in swallowing their medication.
What are the two most important organs for drug metabolism?
Most drugs must pass through the liver, which is the primary site for drug metabolism. Once in the liver, enzymes convert prodrugs to active metabolites or convert active drugs to inactive forms. The liver’s primary mechanism for metabolizing drugs is via a specific group of cytochrome P-450 enzymes.
How many drugs does the average senior take each day?
Americans age 65+ (87%) are even more likely to say they take a prescription drug on a regular basis than those between the ages of 50-64 years (67%). Those who say they are currently taking prescription drugs regularly say they take on average four different prescriptions drugs daily.
How many seniors require hospitalization due to medication problems?
About 350,000 patients each year need to be hospitalized for further treatment after emergency visits for adverse drug events. People typically take more medicines as they age, and the risk of adverse events may increase as more people take more medicines.
What are 2 general factors that can influence drug metabolism?
Physiological factors that can influence drug metabolism include age, individual variation (e.g., pharmacogenetics), enterohepatic circulation, nutrition, intestinal flora, or sex differences. In general, drugs are metabolized more slowly in fetal, neonatal and elderly humans and animals than in adults.
What are the phases of drug metabolism?
Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation. Oxidation reactions are the most common and vital.
What is metabolism activity?
Metabolism is a balancing act involving two kinds of activities that go on at the same time: building up body tissues and energy stores (called anabolism) breaking down body tissues and energy stores to get more fuel for body functions (called catabolism)
Can medications build up in your system?
2 Drugs with a longer half-life can build up in a person’s bloodstream and increase over time. Additionally, factors such as age, kidney function, and hydration can affect how quickly your body is able to clear a medication from your system.
What is the most common medication problem in the elderly?
Warfarin is one of the most common causes of medication-related hospitalizations in older adults. To reduce the risk of serious problems, one may need to apply extra care in monitoring warfarin effect (via the prothrombin blood test) and extra care in checking for interactions when a new drug is prescribed.
How does gender affect drug effectiveness?
Physiologic differences between men and women affect drug activity, including pharmacokinetics and pharmacodynamics. Pharmacokinetics in women is affected by lower body weight, slower gastrointestinal motility, less intestinal enzymatic activity, and slower glomerular filtration rate.