Drugs can be metabolized by oxidation, reduction, hydrolysis, hydration, conjugation, condensation, or isomerization; whatever the process, the goal is to make the drug easier to excrete. The enzymes involved in metabolism are present in many tissues but generally are more concentrated in the liver.
What are the importance and consequences of drug metabolism?
The metabolism of a drug can have important consequences on its therapeutic effect or its toxicity. For this reason, early assessments of metabolic pathways in man help to foresee interindividual variation in drug response and elimination due to metabolism.
What is drug metabolism in medicinal chemistry?
Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug via a biological system to aid its elimination by increasing its hydrophilicity. Drug metabolism occurs in two phases: Phase 1 includes oxidative reactions such as those undertaken by the cytochrome P450s, but also includes reduction and hydrolysis.
What do you mean by drug metabolism?
Drug metabolism is the chemical alteration of a drug by the body. (See also Introduction to Administration and Kinetics of Drugs.) Some drugs are chemically altered by the body (metabolized).
What is the main objective of metabolism?
The three main purposes of metabolism are: the conversion of food to energy to run cellular processes; the conversion of food/fuel to building blocks for proteins, lipids, nucleic acids, and some carbohydrates; and the elimination of metabolic wastes.
What are the consequences of drug metabolism?
In general, the metabolism of a drug decreases its therapeutic effect. The majority of drugs are metabolized to increase their water solubility to allow elimination in urine or bile. However some drugs are metabolized into active compounds first before subsequent metabolism to inactive compounds and be excreted.
What are the phases of drug metabolism?
Drug metabolism reactions comprise of two phases: Phase I (functionalization) reactions such as oxidation, hydrolysis; and Phase II (conjugation) reactions such as glucuronidation, sulphate conjugation. Oxidation reactions are the most common and vital.
What are the four stages of drug metabolization?
The method by which a drug is administered, along with other factors, determines the speed of onset of effects. Drugs undergo four stages within the body: absorption, distribution, metabolism, and excretion.
How does age affect drug metabolism?
Generally, older age is associated with increased blood concentrations of drugs and altered metabolism, reduced effectiveness, and increased risk of adverse reactions for many medications (2).
How are drugs excreted from the body?
Most drugs (or metabolites) are excreted by the kidneys. Three process can occur in renal excretion: glomerular filtration, tubular secretion and passive reabsorption. Some drugs are eliminated by the liver in the bile and excreted in feces.
What is Glucuronidation metabolism?
n. a metabolic process by which drugs or other substances are combined with glucuronic acid to form more water-soluble compounds, which are more readily excreted by the kidneys or in bile. Glucuronidation is the most prevalent of the Phase II reactions of drug metabolism.
What is metabolism and why is it important?
Metabolism refers to all the chemical processes going on continuously inside your body that allow life and normal functioning (maintaining normal functioning in the body is called homeostasis). These processes include those that break down nutrients from our food, and those that build and repair our body.
What is metabolism easy definition?
Metabolism (pronounced: meh-TAB-uh-liz-um) is the chemical reactions in the body’s cells that change food into energy. Our bodies need this energy to do everything from moving to thinking to growing. Specific proteins in the body control the chemical reactions of metabolism.
What is metabolism in human body?
Metabolism is the process by which your body converts what you eat and drink into energy. During this complex process, calories in food and beverages are combined with oxygen to release the energy your body needs to function.